System Notice: The NASA Exoplanet Archive will be unavailable on Thursday, July from 2pm-3pm PDT.

How to Use the Interactive Visualizer

Skip to a section:

Overview and System Requirements

The Interactive Visualizer displays data currently stored in the archive, including information provided by the original source, in several interactive tables:

† Due to their sizes, the Kepler Stellar and SuperWASP data sets require an initial search; results are displayed in an interactive table.

The data are presented in tables that can be searched, filtered, sorted and downloaded by end users from within a web page. Note that some tables contain separate tabs for individual releases, such as the Q1-Q16 KOIs. For more information on sorting and filtering data with the multi-tab interface, see the Tables With Tabs section.

For best results, we strongly recommend using Firefox version 3.6 or newer when using the interactive tables. Internet Explorer is currently not supported by this interface.

Also, please make sure your browser is set to allow pop-up windows from For more information, read the respective help file for your browser version and platform:

Retrieving Data Validation (DV) Summaries

Data validation (DV) summaries are PDF documents provided by the Kepler Mission that show the results of the data validation tests conducted for the object.

There are four ways to access DV documentation:

  1. Generate DV PDF button: Go the TCE table and click the Clear Checked button in the lower-right corner of the page to uncheck all rows. Then, individually select the objects for which you want a report. When finished, click the Generate DV PDF button along the top of the table, then the Submit button in the pop-up window. Though you may request up to 500 summaries at a time, note that each file is roughly 2 MB.

  2. Click the information icon: From the KOI, Confirmed Planets, and TCE tables, click on the information icon () next to an object and then the DV Summary link within the pop-up window (you may need to scroll).

  3. Use wget with the application programming interface (API): Retrieve the individual report's relative path from the Link to DV Report and Link to Summary column. These columns display by default in the KOI table; in the TCE table, select them from the Other Transit Parameters menu in the Column Controls panel and click Update. Note the relative paths are provided; you must add the following URL to the file name in your wget query:

  4. Download all DV reports and summaries from the archive's Bulk Data Download page (see the Kepler DV Scripts table).

Uploading a List of Objects (File or Table Upload)

The Interactive Visualizer's default display shows all data in the archive, but users may use the Table Upload feature to submit an input file with a pre-selected list of objects. The input file must adhere to a few simple requirements:

  • Objects must be listed in a single column.
  • The file should not contain additional information, such as header rows, comments or parameters.
  • Objects must be identified using any combination of the following source name designations:

    Confirmed Planets: HIP name
    Host name
    HD name
    KOI: Kepler name
    Full KIC identifier (i.e., KIC 757450)
    TCE: Full KIC identifier (i.e., KIC 757450)
  • Object names may include spaces and a mix of upper- and lower-case letters.

To use the feature:

  1. Click the Upload File to Search Tables link on the Exoplanet Archive home page, or go directly to the Search Tables page.
  2. Select which table to search for your object parameters: Confirmed Planets, KOIs, or TCEs.

  3. Click Browse and select the input file from your local drive. You may also search for a single object by entering the source ID in the Source ID field.
  4. Click Submit to display the results in the Interactive Visualizer. Note that objects in your input list that are not in the archive are simply ignored.

If a star name is given, all planets for that host star will be returned. If a planet name is given, only that planet will be returned.

Please note that only one table can be searched at a time, so if your input file lists objects from both tables, you will only see results from the table you selected when you uploaded the file. If your input file does not contain any objects in the specified table, a "No matches found" error displays.

Here is a sample file that can be uploaded to the Confirmed Planets table.

Accessing More Scientific Content

In addition to the data contained in the tables, each entry contains links to other online resources. These links can be accessed by clicking on the information icon next to the planet host star name (info), which displays a pop-up window.

You may then point and click on a link to access the online resource.

Entries in the Confirmed Planets table all contain the following links:


  • Confirmed Exoplanet Overview goes to the overview page for the host star and associated planets.
  • Transit Ephemeris Service queries the Exoplanet Archive transit service for this planet and displays the results.
  • (outside link) goes directly to the entry for the host star and its associated planets.
  • (outside link) goes directly to the entry in that resource.

All confirmed Kepler planets contain additional links:

  • Kepler Pipeline Overview: goes to an overview page containing all available information in the archive about a specific Kepler planet.
  • Target Pixel Files (MAST): goes to a page for retrieving time-series imagettes to perform custom photometry analysis.
  • Time Series and Periodogram: sends the data to the archive's time series interactive visualizer and periodogram tools for further processing.

Entries in the KOI table contain the following links:


  • Time Series and Periodogram goes to a light curve visualization page with link to the Periodogram Service.
  • Kepler Pipeline KOI Overview goes to a page containing all available information in the archive about the planet.
  • CFOP goes to the Kepler Community Follow-up Observing Program (CFOP) web site.
  • Transit Ephemeris goes to the Transit Ephemeris service for this planet.
  • Target Pixel Files (MAST) goes to a page for retrieving time-series imagettes to perform custom photometry analysis.
  • DV Summary goes to a PDF that summarizes the data validation tests conducted.

Entries in the Threshold Crossing Events table contain the following links:


  • Time Series and Periodogram goes to a light curve visualization page with link to the Periodogram Service.
  • DV Report goes to the Data Validation Report for the corresponding KepID.
  • DV Summary goes to a PDF that summarizes the data validation tests conducted..

If the pop-up window does not disappear after a 5 seconds, you can close it by clicking the screenshot in the upper-right corner of the pop-up.

Viewing Data

There are several possible parameters given for each planet, one per column. The following columns display by default:

Confirmed Planets Table Kepler Objects of Interest Threshold Crossing Events
Host Name KepID KepID
Planet Letter RA (deg) Planet Number
HD Name Dec (deg) Period (days)
HIP Name Keper-band (mag) Transit Epoch (BKJD)
RA (deg) Teff (K) Transit Depth (ppm)
Dec (deg) Log(g) (cm/s**2) Transit Duration (hr)
Distance (parsec) Stellar Radius (Rsolar) Transit Ingress Time (hr)
V (Johnson) KOI Impact Parameter
Teff (K) Type Inclination (deg)
Stellar Radius (RSolar) Period (days) Planet-Star Distance (AU)
Stellar Mass (MSolar) Transit Epoch (BKJD) Eccentricity
Period (days) Transit Depth (ppm) Longitude of Periastron (deg)
Semi-Major Axis (AU) Transit Duration (hr) Planet-Star Distance to Stellar Radius Ratio
Inclination (deg) Impact Parameter Planet to Stellar Radius Ratio
Time of Periastron (days) Semi-Major Axis (AU) Planet Radius (Earth)
Eccentricity SMA to Stellar Radius Ratio Eq Temperature (K)
Planet Mass (Jupiter) Planet to Stellar Radius Ratio Stellar Teff (K)
Planet Radius (Jupiter) Planet Radius (Earth) Stellar Log(g) (cm/s**2)
Discovery Method   Stellar Radius (Solar)
Planet Density (g/cm**3)   Stellar Metallicity (dex)
TTV Flag   TCE Delivery
Kepler Field Flag   Date of Last Update

Additional parameters can be displayed by selecting the corresponding checkboxes in the Column Controls panel (click the Select Columns button to view). Up to 50 parameters (columns) can be displayed at a time.

Also, hovering your cursor over any part of a row will display the host name for that specific parameter, which is useful when scrolling horizontally and the Host Name column is no longer on the screen.

Descriptions of Discovery Methods

The Discovery Method column in the Planets and Host table uses abbreviations to describe each object's discovery method. Here are the descriptions for each:

Abbrevation Description
pul pulsar timing variations
ima directly imaged
tran transiting
rv radial velocity
ast astrometry
micro microlensing

Adding and Removing Parameters (Columns)

Individual columns can be quickly and easily removed by simply clicking on the icon in the upper-right corner of the column header. To add or remove multiple parameters simultaneously, click the Select Columns button to display the Column Controls panel, then select or de-select the desired checkboxes. Click Update when finished. The table can display up to 50 columns at a time.

Note that selecting a parameter does not automatically select its subordinate parameters. Parameters must be selected individually.


Click the Reset button at the top of the Column Controls panel to reset the parameter selections. This action will select all default parameters, and de-select all others.

Resizing Columns

Column widths may be resized manually by placing the cursor on the border between two column headings until the cursor becomes one or two arrows (depending on your browser), like in the following image:


You may then hold your mouse button down and drag the cursor to the left or right to resize the columns. Note that clicking the Reset Filters button returns the columns to their default widths.

Re-arranging Columns

Columns can also be re-organized by clicking on a column name, holding down the mouse button, and dragging and dropping it to the new location. A red bar will display in the location to which the column will be located when the mouse button is released. In the following example, a column will be relocated between the Dec and Distance columns.


Sorting and Filtering Data

One of the valuable features of the Interactive Visualizer is the ability to sort and filter the data using a slightly extended and simplified form of Structured Query Language (SQL). It is not necessary to have expertise in creating SQL queries to use the visualizer, but it is necessary to follow a specific syntax to do certain things. This section describes the conventions that are supported. For a summary of what is allowed and not allowed, skip to Summary of Allowed Filters for Data String Types and What is Not Allowed.

Important Note About Filtering and Uncertainties and Blend Flags: It's important to remember that filters only apply to the measurement, and not to the uncertainty or blend flag (the values following ±). For example, one entry for Stellar Radius in the Confirmed Planets table has '1.23±0.07*', but the filter only acts on the 1.23 portion. If you include 0.07 in the filter query, this object will not be returned. Filtering on the uncertainty and blend flags will work only if you first display the uncertainty or blend flag columns. Likewise for limit flags. (See Adding and Removing Parameters (Columns).)

Sorting Data

To sort data in any column, double-click on a column heading. Note that when the data are sorted, an up or down arrow/triangle displays in the upper-right corner of the column heading. Data are sorted in ascending order (lowest to highest) on the first double-click, and re-sorted in descending order (highest to lowest) on the second double-click.

Note that columns with data containing a mix of letters and numbers (e.g. HD 10069) are sorted based on the first character. So, for example, a column with several planets that begin with the same letter will be ordered based on the alphabetic characters rather than the numeric values (e.g. HD 10069, HD 100077, HD 10180, etc.).

Multi-column sorting: You may hierarchically sort up to two columns. In the following example, we'll sort the multiple entries for the host name 55 Cnc by its planet letters in ascending (b to f) order.

  1. Click the up-arrow button in the Host Name column heading to sort. Note that the planet letters display in ascending (b to f) order by default.
  2. Click the up-arrow button in the Planet Letter column heading to sort all host names in ascending (b to f) order. Note that all of the 55 Cnc rows will be re-distributed among all the other entries.
  3. Click down-arrow button in the Planet Letter column heading again to sort the data in descending (f to b) order.
  4. Click the down-arrow button in the Host Name column heading to re-group all of the 55 Cnc rows. They now display in a group within the column in descending (f to b) order.

Filtering on Exact and Substring Matches

There are two kinds of literal string searches: exact match and substring match.

An exact match calls for results that exclusively contain the search string you specify. The string must be enclosed in single quotation marks (do not use double quotation marks). For example, to find planets with an Orbital Period of exactly 567 days, you would enter '567.' If there were any entries that were variations of 567, such as 567.5 or 567.25, they would not returned because they are not an exact matches.

A substring match returns all results containing the string, but not exclusively. For example, in the Host Name column of the Confirmed Planets table, enter corot in the text field, then wait a few seconds. The column data will refresh and show only the entries containing CoRoT stars. Note that the search string is case-insensitive, so corot is the same as CoRoT.

Note that these types of searches do not recognize Boolean search terms, such as "and," "or" and "not." For example, entering "corot OR cnc" to find CoRoT or CNC Planet Host Star Names will return no results, because the search function will look for stars named "corot OR cnc," which do not exist. You must do separate searches for "corot" and "cnc."

Filtering on Multiple Parameters

The table allows data to be filtered on multiple parameters, so you can narrow down your results to be very specific. Simply enter your string search in each parameter's search field, giving the table a few seconds to process each parameter before entering the next one. In the example below, the table displays all HD planets that are e planets with an RA less than 200 degrees:


Filtering for Ranges of Data: Greater or Less Than

To search for a range of values above or below a specific value, enter < or > followed by the minimum or maximum value.

Example: In the Planet Mass [Jupiter] column, enter >4 in the column's text field, and then wait a few seconds. The column will refresh and show only planet masses greater than 4. You may then double-click on the column heading to sort the filtered results in ascending or descending order. When sorting is activated, a triangle in the upper-right corner of the column heading displays and points up for ascending order and down for descending order.


Filtering for Ranges of Data: Between

Another method for searching and displaying ranges of data is to type between followed by the search string range, separated with and, as in:   between 4 and 6.

In the following example, the range for RA [deg] is specified as being between 24 and 100, and a sample of the unsorted results is listed:


Filtering for Ranges of Data: Two Strings Separated by Multiple Characters (Letters Only)

The percent symbol (%) can be placed between two search strings that are separated by other characters. For example, entering corot%7 in the Host Name column returns all CoRoT objects that end in 7 that have multiple characters between CoRoT and 7:


To further narrow your search, you can use an underscore ( _ ) instead of a percent sign, which specifies that there is only one character between the two search strings:


Using Filtering To Exclude Data

To exclude specific results from a column, type the less-than (<) and greater-than (>) symbols facing each other followed by the search string. For example, typing <>b in the Planet Letter column excludes all b planets:


Typing != and the search string is another way to do the same thing:


This works with both exact and substring matches, for example: !=123 or !='abc'

Filtering Null Values

Null values are represented by blank spaces, which means no value has been entered for a specific parameter. Zero is not considered null because it is a value. To remove nulls from filtered result, enter not null in the search field. Conversely, you may type null or =null to only show entries with null values for a particular parameter.

No Null Values Only Null Values
screenshot screenshot

Summary of Allowed Filters for Data String Types

Some syntax may only be used with numeric data or letters. The following table summarizes which commands are appropriate, and if so, how to structure them.

(Three dashes indicates the operation does not work with the string type.)

Operation Numeric Syntax Letter Syntax
exact match 123 'abc'
not equal !=123
substring match --- abc
substring mismatch --- !=abc
exclude all nulls not null not null
show only nulls =null
is null
is null
do not display nulls is not null is not null
range of numbers between 123 and 456 ---
range of letters and numbers
(multiple characters)
--- string%string
(e.g. corot%7)
range of letters and numbers
(single character)
--- string_string
(e.g. corot_7)
less than <123 ---
greater than >123 ---
less than or equal to <=123 ---
greater than or equal to >=123 ---

Numerical Matching and Range Filtering for RA and Dec fields

Although the RA and Dec can be displayed as sexagesimal strings, they are, in fact, numbers. Therefore, it is possible to perform range filtering on these columns. As discussed above, range filtering on numerical fields uses =, >, >=, <, <=, !=, <>, and BETWEEN val1 AND val2. The interactive table allows for entering RA or Dec in either a decimal notation or a sexagesimal format. Because there can often be an ambiguity in the entry (eg., is the number in hours or degrees?), we have implemented several rules regarding the interpretation of the input.

  • Assumed input units are the same as those used in the table. For RA, these are hours, minutes, seconds. For Declination, the units are degrees, arc minutes, arc seconds.

  • Only the following non-numeric characters are allowed in the input box: d, - (minus), + (plus), : (colon), > (greater than), < (less than), = (equal), and ! (bang).

  • A 'd' at the end of the string is interpreted as decimal degrees input (RA column only).

  • A 'd' and ':' are not allowed in the same input string

  • Either '-' or '+' is allowed AT THE START the declination string. They are not permitted anywhere else

  • Neither '-' nor '+' are allowed in the RA string

  • In strings that have only one ':' or none, it is assumed the most significant parts of the sexagesimal string are being given and the least significant numbers are zero

  • RA must be between 0 and 24 hours (0d to 360d for RA)

  • Declination must be between -90 and +90 degrees

  • Range filtering is done with the usual BETWEEN val1 AND val2 syntax
    • For RA, if val1 > val2, then the meaning of the filtering is assumed to be WHERE (RA > val1) OR (RA < val2)
    • For Dec, BETWEEN val1 AND val2 produces the same results as BETWEEN val2 AND val1

RA and Dec Filtering Examples

Below are some examples of user inputs for numerical matching and range filtering and how those inputs are interpreted.

User EntryRADec
12:34:5612h 34m 56s12d 34m 56s
12:34.512h 34m 30s12d 34m 30s
1212h 00m 00s12d 00m 00s
12.012h 00m 00s12d 00m 00s
12.512h 30m 00s12d 30m 00s
d12.5not allowednot allowed
12.5d12.5 degrees12.5 degrees
183.5not allowednot allowed
183.5d15h 30m 00snot allowed
-12.0not allowed-12 degrees
-00:30:00not allowed-0.5 degrees
-04:30:00not allowed-4.5 degrees
00:-30:00not allowednot allowed
-03:+20:30not allowednot allowed
12:34:56dnot allowednot allowed

What is Not Allowed

For best results, avoid using the following characters or commands to filter data:

  • Double quotes (" ") will cause the service to fail
  • Quotes or asterisks to indicate wildcards (e.g. HD *)
  • Underscores ( _ )
  • OR or AND or NOT (except as specified in the table summary above)
  • Less-than (<) or greater-than (>) symbols preceding a letter (e.g., <f)
  • Unix- or Perl-style commands or regular expressions (e.g., GT, LT, NE, etc.)
  • Multiple spaces within a query (e.g., =  123 vs. =123)
  • Escape characters to instruct the system to read a character as a string instead of a command (e.g. % or ^ )

Removing All Data Filtering and Sorting

If you've sorted and filtered data in the table and want to start over, you can revert to the default display by clicking the Reset button in the Column Controls panel.

Clicking Reset Filters in the bottom-right corner of the table reverts the table to the configuration before you last clicked Update. For example, if you have filtered some data, then de-selected columns and clicked Reset Filters, the table will look as it did before you last clicked Update.

Note: You may notice the numbering in the Row ID column (if displayed) appears out of order when data are sorted and filtered. The Row ID is the object's unique identifier in the archive's database and does not reflect any sort of ranking or science value.

Tables with Tabs

Some interactive tables, such as the KOI tables or the transit tables, have multiple tabs within a single window. For these tables, some actions apply to all tabs while other apply only to the active tab.

Actions applied to all tabs:

  • Column selection, de-selection and reset
  • Column filters
  • Export option selection
  • Reset Filters button in bottom-right corner
Actions applied to active tab:
  • Sorting
  • Check boxes to select rows
  • Select All and Clear All buttons in bottom-right corner
  • Column order
  • Exporting data
  • Plotting from table

Downloading Data

Exporting Data to a File

Once you've filtered and sorted the data to your specifications, you can export them to a table in one of the following formats:

  • Comma-separated values (.csv)
  • VOTable (.xml)
  • IPAC format (.tbl)
  • Tab-separated format (.tab)

To export to a file, click the Export Options button at the top of the table to specify a format:


In the same drop-down menu, you may opt to export data from all columns and/or rows or just those filtered and/or checked. A row is checked when the checkbox in the first column contains a checkmark (screenshot).

Depending on your browser and platform, the information will either display in new web browser tab or window, or you will be prompted to save the file locally with a new file name.

The constraints used to filter the data will be listed at the top of the table.

Note: The ± symbol embedded with some entries may not be recognized by programs that require 7-bit ASCII characters.

Downloading Data Using the Application Programming Interface (API)

The archive also offers an application programming interface (API) as an alternate method of downloading data directly from the database. This method requires some knowledge of using Structured Query Language (SQL) scripts, which are described in detail on the Application Programming Interface help page.

Plotting the Data

The table plotting function allows users to further investigate exoplanet properties for the ensemble of known exoplanets and/or Kepler candidates. Users can narrow down the list of planets used in the plots, such as plotting only for planets less than, or more massive than, the mass of Jupiter. Some possible use cases include:

  • Plotting the eccentricity-period diagram of known exoplanets
  • Plotting the mass-period diagram
  • Plotting the host star mass vs. planet period

The Exoplanet Archive offers pre-generated plots that are ready-to-publish versions of what can be created manually from the Interactive Visualizer.

Before using the Table Plotting feature, you need to indicate the data from the table you want to send to the plotter. By default, all the currently checked columns and currently checked (and filtered) rows in the table will be exported. You can modify this set by selecting Export All Columns, Export All Rows, and/or Export Currently Filtered Rows under the Export Options icon in the menu.


To start the plotter, click on the Table Plotter icon. The selected table data will be automatically sent to the plotter and a new tab in your browser will open and display the plot, along with control panel on the left and row of icons along the bottom of the window. The left panel contains four tabs: Data, Axes, Lines, and Errors. These tabs contain controls that allow you to customize the plot along, with a Redraw button to render the new plot.


The Data tab allows you to specify which column to plot, along with a text box to enter a descriptive title for both the X and Y axes. A Symbols box allows you to specify the shape, size, and color of the plotted data point by clicking on the appropriate attribute and again on the desired selection in the pop-up bubble.

The Axes tab contains controls that allow you to enter a plot title and customize the colors for the plot background and each of the axes labels. Controls also exist for modifying the scaling of each axis, including, linear, logarithmic, and manual or auto-scaling. In auto-scaling mode, each axis will be scaled large enough to include all data exported to the plotter. There are two ways to zoom in on a specific region of the plot: either click, drag, and release the mouse directly on the plot over a cluster of points of interest, or selectg Manual mode and specify the minimum and maximum data ranges for each axis.

In the Lines tab, you can create line plots with custom line styles, colors and widths. Checking the Hide all lines checkbox allows you to remove these lines when you click Redraw.

The Errors tab contains controls that allow you to select any exported data column to serve as plus and minus error bars for the selected X and Y data values. Checking the Hide all error bars allows you to remove these error bars when you click Redraw.

To increase the size of the plot within the window, you can resize the left control panel by grabbing the handle on the right side of the frame and dragging to the left. Any time the plot is resized, it is also redrawn with the new settings.

The icon tray at the bottom of the window below the plot allow you hide/show the left control panel, zoom in/zoom out, refresh the plot to its default size and scaling, and to download the XY data in ASCII table format.


The four icons at the bottom-left area of the plot window correspond to the Data, Axes, Lines, and Errors tabs from left to right, respectively.

  • Double-clicking on any of these icons hides the left control panel, increasing the size of the plot.

  • Clicking once on any of these icons reveals the corresponding panel for the selected tab.

  • The set of magnifying glass icons allow for zooming in (+), zooming out (-) about the center of the plot, and the Reset (with the R) icon will reset the plot to it’s original scale.

  • The download icon (with the spreadsheet and arrow) allows you download the plotted data in IPAC ASCII format to your local device.

  • The red/green indicator to the right serves as a reminder that the plot axis scaling is either in auto (green) or manual setting mode (red).

You can download the plot to your desktop at any time by positioning your mouse over the plot and right-clicking.

Known Issues and Usage Tips

Issue: After uploading an input file, you get a "No matches found" error.

Possible Solution: You may have selected the wrong table to search in the Table Upload interface. You may only search one table at a time, so try re-submitting your input file and select the other table.

Issue: A table takes a long time to load.

Possible Solution: Try displaying fewer parameters (columns). Each column requires additional loading and processing time that can affect performance.

Issue: The table does not refresh after clicking the web browser's Reload or Refresh button.

Possible Solution: The web browser stores the table data in a local cache, so hold the Shift button while clicking Refresh or Reload to retrieve a fresh batch of data.

Issue: A large strip of whitespace appears at the top or bottom of the table when scrolling up or down.

Possible Solution: This occasionally appears in Safari and Chrome web browsers, usually due to rapid scrolling. Try scrolling in the opposite direction until the white space is off the page, and then resume in the original direction at a slower pace.

Issue: When the web browser window is widened horizontally, the table doesn't expand to the wider size.

Possible Solution: This occasionally occurs in the Safari browser. Try clicking the Update button in the Column Controls panel, or resizing the window again. If that doesn't work, refresh/reload the web page.

Issue: You receive the following error message while trying to filter a parameter:


Possible Solution: You have attempted to use a filter query that is not recognized or allowed by the column. For example, you cannot use the greater-than (>) or less-than (<) symbol with a letter. If you are getting error messages repeatedly, take a moment to review the summary of filter query strings and their usage as well as what is not allowed.

Issue: After clicking Check All, then Clear Checked, then Check All again, the functionality stop working.

Possible Solution: This is a known issue. Click the Reset button in the Column Controls panel to refresh the table.

Issue: If you have filtered data, then de-selected columns, and then clicked Reset Filters in the bottom-right corner of the table, the table revers to the configuration prior to the last time you clicked the Update button.

Possible Solution: This is a known issue. It's best to make your column selections first before filtering the displayed data.

Issue: Clicking Table Plotter brings up the plot in the background, but the screen hangs with a "Loading, Please Wait..." message.


Possible Solution: This is a known issue with Internet Explorer browsers. Try using a different browser, such as Firefox 3.6 or newer.


Last updated: 21 May 2014